Antiviral Medications in the Treatment and Prevention of Long Covid

The ongoing battle against Covid-19 has led to the development and testing of various antiviral medications. As our understanding of the virus and its long-term effects evolves, researchers are focusing on the potential role of these medications in treating Long Covid. This page provides an overview of the current landscape of antiviral treatments being used or tested for managing Long Covid symptoms and their role in early intervention during initial Covid-19 infection.

Understanding Long Covid: Long Covid, also known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), refers to a range of symptoms that continue for weeks or months after the acute phase of the infection has resolved. Common symptoms include fatigue, cognitive issues, and muscle pain, significantly impacting the quality of life of affected individuals.

The Role of Antiviral Medications:

  1. Treating Long Covid Symptoms:
    • Rationale: The hypothesis driving this research is that residual viral particles may contribute to persistent Long Covid symptoms.
    • Current Research: Ongoing clinical trials are investigating various antiviral medications to ascertain their effectiveness in reducing viral persistence and alleviating Long Covid symptoms.
    • Potential Benefits: If successful, these treatments could offer relief from debilitating symptoms like extreme fatigue, ‘brain fog’, and muscle aches.
  2. Early Intervention During Initial Infection:
    • Preventative Approach: Researchers are exploring the possibility that early antiviral intervention during the initial stages of Covid-19 could prevent or lessen the severity of Long Covid.
    • Studies and Trials: Several studies are underway to examine the effectiveness of early antiviral treatment in altering the course of the disease and reducing the risk of developing Long Covid.

Key Medications Under Investigation for Long Covid:

  1. Paxlovid (Nirmatrelvir and Ritonavir): This medication is originally approved for treating COVID-19 in adults and children age 12 and older. It functions by inhibiting a specific enzyme necessary for the virus to replicate. Studies indicate that Paxlovid might also be effective in reducing the persistence of chronic SARS-CoV-2 infection, which could alleviate Long Covid symptoms​​​​.
  2. Remdesivir (Veklury): Approved by the FDA, Remdesivir is used for treating COVID-19 in hospitalized patients requiring supplemental oxygen or at high risk of serious illness. It is administered intravenously and works by targeting the virus directly​​.
  3. Baricitinib (Olumiant) and Tocilizumab (Actemra): Though primarily rheumatoid arthritis drugs, they have been approved for treating COVID-19 in some cases. Baricitinib, taken orally, is thought to have antiviral activity besides reducing inflammation. Tocilizumab, an injectable medication, helps reduce inflammation. Both are used in hospitalized COVID-19 patients on mechanical ventilators or needing supplemental oxygen​​.
  4. Molnupiravir: This antiviral pill is authorized for emergency use to treat mild to moderate COVID-19 in adults at a higher risk of serious illness. Research suggests it may help in reducing the risk of developing Long Covid. A study showed patients who took Molnupiravir had an 8% lower relative risk of developing Long Covid compared to those who didn’t receive the treatment​​​​.
  5. Favipiravir and Merimepodib: These antiviral drugs are under testing for their effectiveness against COVID-19. However, the combination of Lopinavir and Ritonavir has been found ineffective​​.
  6. Ensitrelvir: Currently available in Japan, this antiviral is being studied for its effects on COVID-19 symptoms. A clinical trial showed that a 5-day course of Ensitrelvir significantly reduced the relative risk of loss of taste and smell in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 symptoms​​.

These medications represent a significant portion of the ongoing research into Long Covid treatments. It is crucial to note that the knowledge and understanding of these treatments are continuously evolving, and consulting healthcare professionals for personalized advice is always recommended.


  1. RECOVER-VITAL Trial: A study investigating the effectiveness of a longer course of Paxlovid for chronic SARS-CoV-2 infection and its impact on Long Covid symptoms​​.
  2. RECOVER-NEURO Trial: Research focusing on brain-training and stimulation interventions for cognitive effects of Long Covid​​.
  3. RECOVER-SLEEP Study: Examining treatments for sleep pattern changes post-COVID-19​​.
  4. RECOVER-AUTONOMIC Study: Investigating treatments related to symptoms of the autonomic nervous system post-COVID-19, focusing on postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)​​.
  5. Study on Exercise Intolerance and Fatigue: Research into interventions for exercise intolerance and fatigue associated with Long Covid​​.
  6. JAMA Internal Medicine Research: A study examining the effect of nirmatrelvir and molnupiravir on preventing long COVID in an older adult cohort​​.
  7. Studies Among Veterans: Research indicating the potential of COVID-19 antivirals like nirmatrelvir and molnupiravir in preventing long COVID​​.
  8. IDWeek Research Presentation: Non-peer-reviewed research on ensitrelvir’s effects on COVID-19 symptoms, particularly loss of taste and smell​​.