Aortic Dissection and COVID-19: A Comprehensive Systematic Review

A study published in “Current Problems in Cardiology” provides a comprehensive systematic review of the relationship between COVID-19 and aortic dissection, a significant cardiovascular complication.

Here’s a detailed summary of the findings:

  1. Overview of COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Complications: Initially recognized as a respiratory disease, COVID-19 has also been linked to various cardiovascular issues, including aortic dissection. This study systematically reviews the literature to explore the potential connections between COVID-19 and the pathophysiology of aortic dissection​​.
  2. Increased Risk of Aortic Dissection in COVID-19: The study notes that COVID-19 increases the risk of several cardiovascular complications, including aortic dissection, which is often underrated in COVID-19 patients. Although there is an indication that the rate of aortic dissection has increased during the pandemic, comprehensive studies on its molecular basis in relation to COVID-19 are limited​​.
  3. Similarities in Molecular Pathways and Markers: The study identifies several molecular pathways and markers common between aortic dissection and COVID-19. For instance, Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) levels, indicative of endothelial cell activation, are elevated in COVID-19 patients, as are factors like Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-b), Total Plasma Homocysteine Y (tHCy), and Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs). These factors are also correlated with Marfan Syndrome (MFS) and aortic dissection, suggesting a potential increase in the risk of aortic dissection in COVID-19 patients​​.
  4. Potential Role of COVID-19 in Aortic Root Dilation and Dissection: The study discusses how COVID-19 may increase the probability of aortic root dilation, leading to aortic dissection. This is linked to the elevated levels of TGF-b, particularly in severe cases of COVID-19. Additionally, higher levels of tHCy in COVID-19 patients are correlated with more severe disease manifestations and could be predictive of the severity of pneumonia.
  5. Further Research Needed: While the study highlights significant similarities in the pathophysiology of aortic dissection and COVID-19, there is insufficient evidence to establish a direct correlation with specific gene pathways like LOX and FBN1 in Marfan Syndrome patients. Future investigations are suggested to explore these potential connections further​​.

In summary, this systematic review sheds light on the intricate relationship between COVID-19 and aortic dissection, suggesting that COVID-19 may predispose patients to cardiovascular complications. The study calls for further research to fully understand the molecular mechanisms linking these conditions and to develop appropriate preventive and therapeutic strategies.

Read More: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0146280622000275

Leave a comment