Assessment of Cognitive Function in Patients After COVID-19 Infection
The study “Assessment of Cognitive Function in Patients After COVID-19 Infection” by Jacqueline H. Becker and colleagues, published in JAMA Network Open in 2021, investigates the prevalence and severity of cognitive impairments in COVID-19 survivors. This research is crucial as cognitive dysfunction, often referred to as “brain fog,” has been frequently reported by COVID-19 survivors, yet its extent and association with the severity of the disease were not well understood.
- Study Participants and Methods: The cross-sectional study analyzed data from April 2020 to May 2021, involving 740 participants from the Mount Sinai Health System registry. Participants were over 18, spoke English or Spanish, tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and had no history of dementia. Cognitive functioning was assessed using various neuropsychological measures.
- Cognitive Impairments Observed: The study found significant cognitive impairments several months post-COVID-19 infection. The most affected areas were processing speed, executive functioning, phonemic and category fluency, memory encoding, and recall. About 18% showed deficits in processing speed, and 24% had issues with memory encoding.
- Association with COVID-19 Care Settings: Hospitalized patients exhibited more significant impairments in several cognitive domains compared to those treated in outpatient settings. These domains included attention, executive functioning, category fluency, memory encoding, and recall.
- Discussion and Implications: The study highlights a high frequency of cognitive impairment in COVID-19 survivors, particularly among those who were hospitalized. The pattern of cognitive deficits observed aligns with what is known as a dysexecutive syndrome. These findings have substantial implications for the psychological, functional, and occupational outcomes of survivors.
- Limitations and Future Directions: The study acknowledges potential sampling bias and recommends future research to explore long-term cognitive trajectories and neuroimaging correlations post-COVID-19.
This study is significant in understanding the long-term cognitive impacts of COVID-19, underscoring the need for further research and potential rehabilitation strategies for affected individuals.