Association of COVID-19 With Major Arterial and Venous Thrombotic Diseases: A Population-Wide Cohort Study of 48 Million Adults in England and Wales
The study titled “Association of COVID-19 With Major Arterial and Venous Thrombotic Diseases: A Population-Wide Cohort Study of 48 Million Adults in England and Wales” provides significant insights into the relationship between COVID-19 and the incidence of vascular diseases.
Here is a detailed summary:
- Objective: To determine the long-term effects of COVID-19 on the incidence of vascular diseases.
- Methods: The study analyzed anonymized health records from England and Wales, comparing the incidence of arterial thromboses and venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) in people with and without a COVID-19 diagnosis.
- Population and COVID-19 Diagnoses:
- Involved 48 million adults, with 125,985 hospitalized and 1,319,789 non-hospitalized within 28 days of COVID-19 diagnosis.
- The risk of non-hospitalized COVID-19 was higher in women, while hospitalized COVID-19 risk was higher in men. Risk increased with age and deprivation.
- Incidence of Vascular Diseases:
- There were 260,279 first arterial thromboses and 59,421 first VTEs during the study period.
- Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for arterial thrombosis and VTEs were significantly higher soon after COVID-19 diagnosis but declined over time.
- Comparison with Non-COVID-19 Cases:
- In the first week after COVID-19 diagnosis, aHRs were 21.7 for arterial thrombosis and 33.2 for VTEs, compared to non-COVID-19 cases.
- These ratios declined to 1.34 for arterial thrombosis and 1.80 for VTEs by weeks 27 to 49.
- Subgroup Analysis:
- Higher aHRs were observed longer after diagnosis in hospitalized vs. non-hospitalized COVID-19 cases.
- Black or Asian individuals and those without prior events had higher aHRs compared to White individuals or those with prior events.
- Clinical Implications:
- The study highlights the need for strategies to prevent vascular events post-COVID-19, especially after severe cases leading to hospitalization.
- Emphasizes the importance of early primary care review, risk factor management, and adherence to preventive therapies.
- Implications: The study underscores the elevated risk of arterial and venous thrombotic diseases following COVID-19, particularly in hospitalized patients and certain demographic groups.
- Prevention and Care: These findings support the use of COVID-19 vaccines, early review after discharge, and secondary preventive measures in high-risk patients.
This comprehensive analysis reveals a significant association between COVID-19 and an increased risk of major arterial and venous thrombotic diseases. It calls for vigilant post-COVID-19 monitoring and proactive management strategies to mitigate these risks.