One disease, many faces – typical and atypical presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection-related COVID-19 disease

This study titled “One disease, many faces – typical and atypical presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection-related COVID-19 disease” by Philips CA et al., published in the World Journal of Clinical Cases provides a comprehensive review focusing on the various clinical presentations of COVID-19, emphasizing the disease’s multisystem impact and the diverse symptoms beyond the commonly known respiratory manifestations.

Abstract Summary: The review acknowledges that while COVID-19 is primarily known for respiratory symptoms, there is significant evidence of a wide range of clinical presentations. This review aims to provide an in-depth analysis of these varied presentations, which is crucial for frontline clinicians and healthcare workers for timely diagnosis and treatment.

Introduction: The study begins with a background on the identification and progression of COVID-19 as a pandemic. It details the genomic characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, its possible origins, and the mechanisms of infection, focusing on the binding of the virus to ACE-2 receptors in various human tissues.

General Considerations in COVID-19: The authors discuss the incubation period, transmission methods, and symptomatic presentation of COVID-19. They highlight the disease’s variability in presentation, ranging from asymptomatic to critical stages, and emphasize the importance of epidemiological factors in detection.

Presentations of COVID-19:

  • Respiratory System: Describes the range of respiratory symptoms from mild upper tract symptoms to critical pneumonia.
  • Cardiovascular System: Discusses cases where COVID-19 leads to cardiac issues like arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocarditis.
  • Gastrointestinal System: Outlines symptoms like loss of appetite, nausea, and diarrhea, and the possibility of faecal-oral transmission.
  • Hepatobiliary System: Addresses liver involvement, typically secondary to the disease’s progression or treatment.
  • Central Nervous System: Covers neurological implications like confusion, corticospinal tract involvement, and Guillain-Barre syndrome.
  • Oto-rhinological and Ophthalmic Presentations: Highlights symptoms like anosmia (loss of smell), dysgeusia (distorted taste), and rare instances of keratoconjunctivitis.
  • Venous Thromboembolism: Discusses the pro-thrombotic state induced by COVID-19 and its complications.
  • Dermatological Presentations: Describes skin-related symptoms like rashes and lesions.

Conclusion: The study concludes that while COVID-19 typically presents with respiratory symptoms, it can affect multiple organ systems. Understanding these diverse presentations is crucial for early diagnosis and effective management.

Reference Details:

  • Authors: Cyriac Abby Philips, Narain Mohan, Rizwan Ahamed, Sandeep Kumbar, Sasidharan Rajesh, Tom George, Meera Mohanan, Philip Augustine
  • Published: World Journal of Clinical Cases, 2020

Please remember, while this study provides a comprehensive overview of COVID-19’s clinical presentations, consulting healthcare professionals for personalized advice and treatment is crucial. The information in the study reflects the understanding of COVID-19 as of its publication date and may evolve with ongoing research.

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